Friday, October 30, 2009

Some of the Texts Related to Hijrah and Separating from the Lands of Shirk

Some of the Texts Related to Hijrah and Separating from the Lands of Shirk

AUTHOR:Husayn Al-'Awaayisha
SOURCE:Al-Fasl-ul-Mubeen fee Mas'alat-il-Hijrah wa Mufaaraqat-il-Mushrikeen

[1] Allaah says: "Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves (by not performing Hijrah), they (angels) will say (to them): 'In what (condition) were you?' They will reply: 'We were weak and oppressed in the earth.' They (angels) will say: 'Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?' Such men will find their abode in Hell - what an evil destination! Except the weak ones among men, women and children who cannot devise a plan, nor are they able to direct their way. These are the ones whom Allaah is (most) likely to forgive, and Allaah is Ever Oft-Pardoning, Most Forgiving. And whosoever migrates in the Way of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by. And whosoever leaves his home as an emigrant unto Allaah and his Messenger, and death overtakes him, his reward is then surely incumbent upon Allaah. And Allaah is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful." [Surat-un-Nisaa: 97-100]

The following occurs in Tafseer Al-Qurtubee:
"Ibn Al-'Arabee (rahimahullaah) said: 'The scholars have divided traveling to different lands into two categories: 1) that which is done as a result of fleeing and 2) that which is done for the purpose of seeking. The first category is further divided into six types:

1) Hijrah - and that is migrating from the Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb) [1] to the land of the Muslims.This type of Hijrah was obligatory during the Prophet's time and remains obligatory until the Day of Judgement…

2) Leaving from the land of innovation (bid'ah).

3) Migrating from the land where the unlawful is dominant and widespread.

4) Fleeing away from that which is harmful to one's body.

5) The fear of getting sick in a land that has an unhealthy atmosphere and emerging from there to a land in which one can walk freely outside (without getting sick).

6) Fleeing for fear that harm will be inflicted upon one's wealth." [2]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said in his Tafseer:
"Ad-Dahhaak said: 'This ayah was revealed concerning a group of people among the hypocrites who remained in Makkah instead of going with the Messenger of Allaah (to Madeenah). They ended up fighting alongside the disbelievers on the Day of Al-Badr and were destroyed along with those who were destroyed.’ Thus this noble ayah was revealed, generally applying to everyone that resides amongst the disbelievers, (1) whilst possessing the ability to make Hijrah and (2) not being able to establish his Religion in that land. Thus he is oppressing himself and committing the forbidden. This is based on the consensus of the scholars, and also on the wording found in this ayah, such that He says'Verily, as for those whom the angels take (in death) while they are wronging themselves'because of their not performing Hijrah. 'They will say: In what (condition) were you?' meaning: ‘Why did you reside here and not make Hijrah?' Concerning His statement: "And whosoever migrates in the Way of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by", this is an incitement towards performing Hijrah and withdrawing from the disbelievers." [3]

Imaam Al-Aloosee (rahimahullaah) said in Rooh-ul-Ma'aanee after quoting Allaah's statement:"Was not the earth of Allaah spacious enough for you to migrate therein?":

"Some of the scholars use this ayah as evidence for the obligation of performing Hijrah (migration) from the place in which an individual is not capable of establishing his Religion. This is the opinion of Imaam Maalik. Ibn Al-'Arabee has also reported the obligation of making Hijrah from a land that is plague-stricken." [4]

The following occurs in the book Al-'Ibrah mimmaa Jaa'a bil-Ghazwi wash-Shahaadati wal-Hijrah of Abu At-Tayyib Sideeq Hasan [Khaan] Al-Bukhaaree (rahimahullaah):

"This ayah can be used as evidence for the obligation of Hijrah on every individual that resides in the Land of Shirk or in the land in which acts of disobedience to Allaah are being committed openly. This is on the condition that one has the ability to perform Hijrah and he is not from those who are weak, based on the generality that occurs in this ayah, even though the cause for the revelation of the ayah was specific according to what was stated previously. What is apparent is that there is no distinction between one place and another place nor between one period of time and another period of time." [5]

In the same page, the following also occurs:
"Allaah says: 'And whosoever migrates in the Way of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by.' When this ayah was revealed, a group of Muslims migrated to the land of Abyssinia, while another group, which included the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), stayed behind. They then performed the Hijrah (migration) to the honorable city of Madeenah and Hijrah became obligatory upon every individual that was oppressed and not able to manifest his Religion openly." [6]

[2] Allaah says: "Verily, those who believed and migrated (made Hijrah) and strove hard in Jihaad with their wealth and their lives in the Cause of Allaah, as well as those who gave them asylum and help; these are all allies to one another. And as for those who believed but did not migrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate. But if they seek your help in Religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual agreement. And Allaah sees all that you do. And those who disbelieve, they are allies of one another. And if you (Muslims) do not do so (i.e. become allies of one another under one leader, Khaleefah, to make Allaah's Religion victorious) there will be fitnah (i.e. wars and bloodshed) on the earth and great corruption (appearance of Shirk)" [7]

Imaam Ash-Shawkaanee (rahimahullaah) said in his book, Nail-ul-Awtaar:
"Al-Khattaabee said: 'Indeed, Hijrah became obligatory when the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) migrated to Madeenah, (as well as his companions) to his presence so that they may fight along his side and learn the tenets of their Religion from him. Allaah affirms this in many ayaat of the Qur'aan, to the point that He cuts off the trust of alliance between the one who migrates and the one who doesn't migrate. He says 'And as for those who believed but did not migrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they migrate.' So when Makkah was conquered and people from every tribe began to enter into the fold of Islaam, the obligatory form of Hijrah came to an end and that form, which was recommended, (only) remained." [8]

Al-Baghawee (rahimahullaah) said in Sharh-us-Sunnah:
"It is possible to combine the texts from another angle, thus his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) statement: 'There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest' refers to the ‘Hijrah’ from Makkah to Madeenah."

Al-Haafidh Ibn Katheer (rahimahullaah) said in his Tafseer:
"The meaning of His saying: 'And if you (Muslims) do not do so, there will be fitnah on the earth and great corruption' is: 'You must disassociate yourselves from the disbelievers and make an alliance with the believers. And if you fail to do so, then fitnah will befall the people’ – and that (fitnah) means confusion and intermingling between the believers and the disbelievers. Then there will result (from that) widespread and overflowing corruption amongst mankind." [9]

Imaam Al-Aloosee (rahimahullaah) said:
"'There will be fitnah on the earth' means that great tribulations will occur as a result of that, which consist of differing in opinion, weakness in Eemaan and an open manifestation of disbelief.'And great corruption' means the shedding of blood (illegally) based on what has been reported on Al-Hasan. Thus, the understanding is that there will be a great corruption in that." [10]

Concerning Allaah's statement: "Verily, those who believed and migrated (made Hijrah)", Al-Aloosee said: "They are the Muhaajiroon -- those who migrated for the sake of Allaah from their homes in their motherland, and left them for their enemies (to possess)."[11]

[3] Ibn 'Abbaas (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest, but instead Jihaad and good intention. And if you should find any disagreement, then flee (away from it)." [12]

It is stated in Tuhfat-ul-Ahwadhee:
"'There is no (more) Hijrah after the Conquest' refers to (the Hijrah) made from Makkah. Al-Khattaabee and others said: ‘In the initial stages of Islaam, Hijrah (migration) used to be obligatory upon everyone that accepted Islaam, due to the few amount of Muslims that resided in Madeenah and their need to gather together in unity. However, when Allaah opened Makkah for conquest, the people entered the fold of Islaam in multitudes. Thus the obligation of migrating to Madeenah was cancelled and the obligation of Jihaad and good intention remained obligatory upon whoever rose for its occasion or had an enemy attack him.’" [13]

It also states:
"The wisdom behind the obligation of Hijrah upon the one who accepted Islaam, also, was so that he may be safe from the abuse of his disbelieving relatives. For indeed, they used to torture those from their ranks that had accepted Islaam, until they apostated from their Religion back to theirs. This type of Hijrah continued with the same ruling (obligatory) in regards to everyone that accepted Islaam while residing in the lands of disbelief and having the ability to leave from there. Concerning 'But only Jihaad and good intention', At-Teebee said: 'This rectification calls for opposing the ruling that comes after it in favor of what comes before it. The understanding of this statement is that the Hijrah – which is withdrawing away from one’s homeland – which was required upon every individual to perform to Madeenah, came to an end, except for the withdrawing that was done for the purpose of making Jihaad, which remained existent, as well as the withdrawing that was done due to the pure intention, such as fleeing from the lands of disbelief, migrating for the sake of seeking knowledge and fleeing away from trials for the sake of one’s Religion. The intention is included in all of these aspects." [14]

It is stated in Badhl-ul-Majhood fee Halli Abee Dawood:
"As for his (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) second statement,[15] then its meaning is: 'Hijrah (migrating) from the lands of disbelief to the lands of Islaam will not cease until the Day of Judgement.'" [16]

There also occurs in it, the following:
"The following statement is quoted from Al-Khattaabee in the book Al-Haashiyah: 'In the first days of Islaam, Hijrah used to be obligatory, then it became recommended. This occurs in the statement of Allaah: 'And whosoever migrates in the Way of Allaah, he will find many dwelling places and plenty (of sustenance) to live by'. This ayah was revealed after the Prophet had moved his residence to Madeenah and when the disbelievers' abuse of the Muslims (in Makkah) became severe. Thus, they as well, were commanded to change their residence and migrate to his presence. This was in order that they may be with him (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam), so that they can support one another if matters were to worsen and so that they could acquire knowledge of the aspects of the Religion from him and better understand it. The biggest fear at that time was from the Quraysh tribe and the people that dwelled amongst the residents of Makkah.

So when Makkah was conquered, this understanding came to an end and the obligation of Hijrah was uplifted, and it returned to being recommended. Thus there are two types of Hijrah. The one that came to an end was the one that was obligatory and the one that remained was the one that was recommended.’"

[4] Samurah Ibn Jundub (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Whoever keeps intimate relations with a disbeliever and resides with him, then he is just like him." [17]

It is stated in Nail-ul-Awtaar:
“In this (hadeeth) is evidence for the forbiddance of residing with the disbelievers and the obligation of separating away from them." [18]

[5] Jareer Ibn 'Abdillaah reported that the Messenger of Allaah (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "I am free from every Muslim that establishes his residence amongst the disbelievers." They (the Sahaabah) said: "O Messenger of Allaah, why?" He said: "Their two (household) fires must not look towards (i.e. face) each other.” [19]

Ibn Al-Atheer (rahimahullaah) said in An-Nihaayah:
“This means that it is required as well as obligatory upon a Muslim to keep a large distance between his place of residence and the disbeliever's place of residence. The place where he kindles his (household) fire must not be established in a way so that it is visible and apparent to the fire of the disbeliever, since it is the fire that is kindled inside the place of residence (to keep warm). Instead he should establish his home in the land of the Muslims. Indeed, it is only hated for someone to live next to the disbelievers because there is no covenant or trust with them. Due to this, the Muslims are strongly urged to make Hijrah.”

And he (rahimahullaah) said:
"Their two fires differ, for this one calls towards Allaah while the other one calls towards the Shaytaan (Devil), so how can they be in agreement?"

[6] Jareer (radyAllaahu ‘anhu) reported: "I gave the oath of allegiance to the Messenger of Allaah that I would establish the prayer, pay the Zakaat, give sincere advice to every Muslim and that I would disassociate myself from every disbeliever." [20]

It is stated in the book Al-'Ibrah:
"Ibn Hajr Al-Makkee said in his Fataawaa regarding hadeeth: 'This hadeeth’s meaning is that it is required for every Muslim to keep his place of residence far away from the places of residence of the disbelievers, meaning those who are at war with the Muslims. Nor should he establish his home in a place, in which if he sets up a fire (to warm himself), it would be visible and apparent to the fire that they have kindled in their homes (to keep themselves warm). This is because when he (a Muslim) has his fire face the other fires, it becomes counted as being one amongst them. It has been agreed upon that Hijrah is obligatory along with certain conditions, from the land that is at war with the Muslims. The source for mentioning the ‘two fires’ looking towards each other is a figurative expression derived from the saying: ‘My home is looking out towards such and such person's home’, meaning it is facing it.

The reason for the relation between the cause and the effect in regards to their residing amongst the disbelievers is due to their adding to their (disbelievers’) population. Also, if an army were to seek them out, perhaps they would be prevented from aiding them, since they would see the campfires of the Muslims mixed along with their campfires. This is because when the Arabs would encounter an army, they would know their amount in number by counting the campfires that they had. An example of this occurred during the Prophet's quest to conquer Makkah, when the disbelievers sent an envoy to see his army, which was in the passageway of the town of Dhahran. So when this great warning against the Muslims' taking residence amongst the disbelievers – which prevents Muslims from waging war against them and brings an absence of fear entering into them – was issued, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) made himself free of anyone that resided amongst them. This was because it was a reason for their not making Jihaad against them." [21]

It is stated in Al-Haashiyah of Imaam As-Sindee:
"Accompanying a disbeliever leads towards Shirk, and taking an oath of allegiance to abandon Shirk entails taking an oath to abandon all the things that lead towards it. Thus this oath results in the abandonment of accompanying a disbeliever and Allaah knows best." [22]

[7] In another hadeeth, the Prophet (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Each Muslim is sacred to another Muslim. Two brothers are supporters for one another. Allaah does not accept the deeds of a disbeliever who has accepted Islaam, until he withdraws from the disbelievers (and goes) to the Muslims." [23]

[8] Mu'awiyah narrated that Allaah's Messenger (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Hijrah will not cease until repentance ceases (to be accepted). And repentance will not cease (to be accepted) until the sun rises from the west." [24]

[9] And in another hadeeth, he (sallAllaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Hijrah will not come to an end so long as the disbelievers are fought." [25]


[1] Translator’s Note: The term Daar-ul-Harb (Land of War) is synonymous with the term Daar-ul-Kufr(Land of Disbelief) in that they both are lands in which the Muslim is forbidden to take residence in, according to the conditions mentioned in this book. The great scholar 'Alaa-ud-Deen Al-Mardaawee (rahimahullaah) said: "Hijrah is obligatory upon the one who is not able to openly display his Religion in a Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb), without any disagreement. A Land of War (Daar-ul-Harb) is any land in which the laws of the disbelievers are superior.” [This quote is mentioned later in this article] Perhaps, the scholars specified this land with “War” since it is the disbelievers’ land that is always prone to wage war against the Muslims. Allaah knows best.

[2] Tafseer Li-Ahkaam-il-Qur'aan of Imaam Al-Qurtubee (7/350)

[3] Tafseer Al-Qur'aan-ul-Adheem of Ibn Katheer (1/555)

[4] Rooh-ul-Ma'aanee of Imaam Al-Aloosee (5/126)

[5] Al-'Ibrah mimmaa Jaa'a bil-Ghazwi wash-Shahaadati wal-Hijrah (pg. 217)

[6] ibid

[7] Surat-ul-Anfaal: 72-73

[8] Nail-ul-Awtaar of Imaam Ash-Shaukaanee (8/178)

[9] Tafseer Al-Qur'aan-ul-Adheem of Ibn Katheer (2/343)

[10] Rooh-ul-Ma'aanee of Imaam Al-Aloosee (10/38)

[11] Rooh-ul-Ma'aanee (10/37)

[12] Reported by Al-Bukhaaree (1834) and Muslim (1864) from the hadeeth of Aa’isha. This wording is its complete form. However, In Saheeh Muslim (1353) from the hadeeth of Ibn ‘Abbaas, it occurs without the mention of “after Hijrah”.

[13] Tuhfat-ul-Awadhee Sharh Sunan At-Tirmidhee of Al-Mubaarakpuree (5/214)

[14] Tuhfat-ul-Awadhee Sharh Sunan At-Tirmidhee (5/215)

[15] He means by this, the Prophet’s saying: “Hijrah will not come to an end until (tawbah) comes to an end.” Its checking will be mentioned later.

[16] Badhl-ul-Majhood fee Halli Abee Dawood (11/372)

[17] Reported by Abu Dawood and others. It is a hasan hadeeth. See As-Saheehah (no. 2330)

[18] Nail-ul-Awtaar of Imaam Ash-Shaukaanee (8/177)

[19] Reported by Abu Dawood, At-Tirmidhee and others and it is a saheeh hadeeth. See the checking in Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (1207)

[20] Reported by An-Nasaa'ee and others and it is a saheeh hadeeth. See its checking in Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (5/31)

[21] Al-'Ibrah mimmaa Jaa'a bil-Ghazwi wash-Shahaadati wal-Hijrah (pg. 266)

[22] Al-Haashiyah (7/148)

[23] Reported by An-Nasaa'ee (1/358). And Ibn Maajah (no. 2536) reported the second part of it. Its chain of narration is hasan according to Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (no. 1207).

[24] Reported by Abu Dawood (no. 2479) and it occurs in Saheeh Sunan Abu Dawood (no. 2166). It was also reported by Ad-Daarimee, An-Nasaa'ee in Sunan-ul-Kubraa, Al-Baihaqee, Ahmad and others. It is a saheeh hadeeth as occurs in Irwaa-ul-Ghaleel (no. 1208).

[25] Saheeh Sunan An-Nasaa'ee (no. 3889)

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